Saturday, March 14, 2020
Respiratory Therapy essays The field I wish to pursue is that of respiratory therapy. When I was a child was when my first interest in respiratory therapy was aroused. As a child I was sick a great deal with various lung ailments that required frequent hospitalizations. I would always revel in the fact that how intelligent and courtesy the respiratory therapist were that took care of me. They were so good at what they did and they always made me feel better. I wanted to be like them. That thought had never deviated since I decided that was what I wanted to do. (1)Respiratory therapy is a result of specialization trends of the late 60s in health care. At first referred to as inhalation therapy, respiratory practitioners did very little. They were initially one the job trainees, trained by nurses, who did medial chores that nurses didnt have time or didnt want to do. This consisted of a lot of the time consuming activities such as setting up oxygen, delivering IPPBs, ultrasonic nebulizers, chest physiotherapy and setting up machinery such as croup tents and ventilators. These technical chores involved no interpretation of the reasoning behind these mechanisms but only how to monkey the steps involved in performing them. This early practitioner had absolutely no autonomy as they had only technical skills and other employees such as nursing normally surpassed those skills. (2)The field of respiratory care has since evolved a great deal. Beginning in the seventies formal respiratory programs were initiated. This formalized training would not only teach an individual the technical aspects of the field but also a moderate amount of the theory behind them. As in most fields, this increase in education was shortly followed by credentialing exams to certify the respiratory practitioners. These exams were used to prove the skills and information that the practitioners ...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Business Reaserch Project Proposal - Essay Example When todays young iPod Touch users age by five years, they will already have iTunes accounts, saved personal contacts to their iPod Touch devices, purchased hundreds of apps and songs, and mastered the iPhone OS user interface. This translates into loyalty and switching costs, allowing Apple to seamlessly graduate young users from the iPod Touch to the iPhone" (Jeff Bertolucc 2009). Consumers are eager to take advantage of the developments of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPod in regions where the iPod has not been officially launched as yet. The problem lies in the fact that the success of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPod has paved the way for the exponential growth of the smart phone industry. Consumers are now more inclined to purchase smart phones than any other types of portable digital music players. In addition, the success of the iPod has also spurred the rapid development of a large line of smart phones designed by competitors to rival AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iPod and take advantage of the growing market for smart phones. In this regard, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s move into the portable digital music player industry takes on a conspicuous form on account of the non-uniform that Apple is faced with on a global scale. The global competitive landscape for portable digital music player is every different now from what is used to be a decade ago. Technological innovation is driving down cost of production as it continues to drive up demand. As a result of these trends, Apple took a step beyond portable music players and moved into the music industry. This move of reverse integration allowed Apple to take on a strong position in the music industry. However, the move is one that does not promise the same success on an operational scenario such as that which it does in a tactical scenario. As a result, AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the music industry becomes questionable when considered in the strategic perspective. Yet another aspect of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s recent development is that which
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster risk management plan - Case Study Example From the data provided, it appears that a risk management plan was in existence. Some of the management plans were applied whereas some of the plans were not applicable due to some reasons. One of the examples of a risk management plan was to design a space shuttle program that would utilize both the liquid and solid propellants. The liquid propellant system is more reliable as compared to the solid propellant system. The flow of the liquid propellant from the storage tanks to the engine can be throttled and shut down in case of emergency whereas a solid propellant cannot function in the same manner. One of the drawbacks associated with the liquid propellants was that they are comparatively expensive than the solid propellants and hence it was impossible for NASA to hire a system totally functional on liquid propellant. A combination of both was manufactured. In 1972, NASA chose Rocker for the building of the orbiter. According to many industry leaders, the Rocker package did not include an escape system. An escape system is very effective and necessary in case of emergencies. NASA officials ignored the escape system and hence the Space Shuttle Program became the first the first U.S. aircraft which did not include an escape system for the crew. According to Mr. Moore, (NASA's deputy administrator for space flight), weather plays an important role. According to him, the specifications on the wind velocity need to be checked in order to avoid exceeding of crosswinds. This is done so that the commanders can have a clear view of the runway and so forth. In order to avoid any accidents that may be related to weather, crosswinds limits are maintained. These issues clearly enhance the project management factor. Some of the risk management plans were implied whereas some of them could not be reinforced. 2. Would there had been a better way to handle risk management planning at NASA assuming sixteen flights per year, twenty live flights per year or as originally planned, sixty flights per year Why is the number of flights per year critical in designing a formalized risk management plan The planner that was originally planned comprised of sixteen flights per year. With the increase in flights, the paper work tended to increase. The requirement for paper work completion was that it was supposed to be submitted approximately one week before every flight. The increase in paper work meant that the accomplishment of goals was getting difficult. With the increase in paperwork, the formulation of a risk management plan was almost impossible because half of the time was consumed in the paperwork of the flights. The employees of NASA were working very hard to cope up with the paperwork which was increasing with the increase in the number of flights. Increase in paperwork meant that the personnel had to work overtime which included the weekends. According to an interoffice memo that was sent from Scot Stein to Bob Lund the paperwork was making it difficult for them to handle the problems and formulating a risk management plan because half the time was taken up by the paperwork. He said that it was necessary to make
Friday, January 31, 2020
High School and Education Essay 1a) Cultural Deprivation -Intellectual Development: development of thinking and reasoning skills. Theorists would argue that many WC homes lack educational books, toys and activities that would help stimulate a childÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual development. Douglas- WC pupils scored lower on test of ability, as their parents are less likely to support their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual development. Bernstein and Young- mothers choose toys that influence intellectual development. Criticism: WC may not be able to afford these toys etc. -Language: children fail to develop necessary language skills and grow up incapable of abstract thinking and unable to use language to explain, describe, enquire and compare. Restricted Elaborated code; Bernstein. MC have an advantage as the elaborated code is used by teachers, text books and exams. Also MC pupils are already fluent speakers (socialisation) so they Ã¢â¬Ëfeel at homeÃ¢â¬â¢ in school and are more likely to succeed. Criticism: Bernstein describes WC speech inadequate. -Attitudes and Values: Parents attitudes and values are a key factor affecting educational achievement. Douglas- WC parents place less value on education. Feinstein- the lack of interest is more important than financial hardship or factors within school. Many WC subcultures have different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society. Hyman- WC subculture is a self-imposed barrier to educational success. Sugerman- Fatalism, Collectivism, Immediate Gratification, Present-time Orientation. WC children internalise the beliefs and values of their subculture through the socialisation process meaning under-achievement. -Compensatory Education: Policy designed to tackle the problem of CD by providing extra resources to school and communities in deprived areas. E.g. Sure Start, Education Action Zones etc. Criticism: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t see the real cause of under-achievement (poverty and material deprivation). -Criticisms: Keddie; CD is a myth and blames victims. A child cannot be deprived of their own culture they are just culturally different. Troyna and Williams; teachers have a Ã¢â¬Ëspeech hierarchyÃ¢â¬â¢ where MC speech is highest. Blackstone and Mortimore; parents attend fewer parent evenings as they may work longer hours/less regular hours or put off by schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s MC atmosphere. Also may not help their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress as they lack the knowledge. -Studies show that WC children are more likely to leave school from the age of 16 and are less likely to go on to sixth form and university. Also working-class children are more likely to start school unable to read, and are more likely to fall behind in reading, writing and number skills. 1b) Material Deprivation -Referred to poverty and lack of material necessities (housing/income). -Stats; 32% of WC students were considering moving out of the family home to attend university. 90% of failing schools are in deprived areas. 33% of those receiving free school meals got 5 or more A*-C GCSE grades. 90% of Ã¢â¬ËfailingÃ¢â¬â¢ schools are located in deprived areas. -Housing- overcrowded housing means less space to do work, play, sleep etc, and greater risk of accidents. -Diet and health- lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition - weaker immune system - lowering childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s energy levels - get ill easier (poor attendance at school). WC children are more likely to have behavioural or emotional problems. -Financial Support- WC children lack equipment and miss out on school trips. They also make do with hand-me-downs (results in being stigmatised/bullied). Children living in poverty take on jobs (baby sitting, cleaning, paper rounds) which has a negative impact on their school work. Also very few go on to university. The government has tried to tackle this problem, e.g. EMA, raising the school leaving age and providing free-school meals. -Criticisms: Ignores internal factors and cultural deprivation. 1c) Cultural Capital -Bourdieu suggested MC culture is as valuable in educational terms as economic capital. The forms of knowledge, values, ways of interacting and communicating ideas that MC children possess are developed further and rewarded by the education system (qualifications).WC have a lack of cultural capital which leads to exam failure. They also Ã¢â¬Ëget the messageÃ¢â¬â¢ that education isnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant for them thus they truant/leave school early/provide no effort. -Education, economic and cultural capital can be converted into one another. E.g. MC children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of school and gain qualifications. Wealthier parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital by sending their children to private schools, and paying extra tuition. -Gewirtz: sees how greater parental choice of school has benefited one social class more. Study; 14 London schools with interviews from parents and teachers. She found that differences in economic and cultural capital lead to class differences in how far parents can implement choice of secondary school. She identifies three main types of parents; privileged-skilled choosers (MC parents who used their economic and cultural capital to gain educational capital for their children), disconnected-local choosers (WC parents whose choices were restricted by their lack of economic and cultural capital), and semi-skilled choosers (mainly WC who were ambitious for their children but lacked cultural capital). Internal Factors (class difference) 2a) Labelling -Attaching a meaning to someone. Teachers often attach labels regardless of their ability or attitude. -Howard Becker- Did a study based on interviews with 60 Chicago high school teachers; they judge pupils to what they think is the Ã¢â¬Ëideal pupilÃ¢â¬â¢. WC children were furthest (regarded as badly behaved). -Cicourel and Kitsuese- Did a study of educational counsellors in an American high school; they claimed to judge students according to their ability, however, they judged students on their social class/race- MC have more potential than WC children. -Rist- Did a study of an American kindergarten; the teacher used information about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s background and appearance to place them into separate groups. At the front was the Ã¢â¬ËtigersÃ¢â¬â¢ (MC, given complex work), Ã¢â¬ËcardinalsÃ¢â¬â¢ and then the Ã¢â¬ËclownsÃ¢â¬â¢ (given easy work like drawing). -Sharp and Green- Did a study about a Ã¢â¬Ëchild-centredÃ¢â¬â¢ primary school; children picked their own activities, teachers felt when a child is ready to learn they will seek help. However, teachers believed that children who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t ready should engage in Ã¢â¬Ëcompensatory playÃ¢â¬â¢. Their findings support the interactionist view that children of different class background are labelled differently. They argue that the negative labelling of the WC is also the result of inequalities in wider society. 2b) Self-Fulfilling Prophecy -A prediction that comes true because it has been made. Step 1: Teacher labels pupil and makes predictions. Step 2: Teacher treats the pupil accordingly. Step 3: Pupil internalises the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation which becomes part of their self-concept/image, and becomes the kind of pupil the teacher believed (prediction is fulfilled). -Streaming: involves separating children into different ability groups (streams). Each group is taught differently. Studies show that the self-fulfilling prophecy is likely to occur once streamed. WC children are usually put in a lower stream as they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Ëideal pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢. It is difficult to move up into a higher stream thus are locked into their teachers expectations - self-fulfilling prophecy as the children live up to their teachers expectations by under-achieving. 2c) Pupil Subcultures -A group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns. They emerge as a response to the way pupils have been labelled (reaction to streaming). -Lacey: Differentiation- process of teachers categorising pupils according to their ability/attitude/behaviour. Polarisation- process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of the two opposite extremes. Pro-school subculture- placed in higher streams, remain committed to the values of school and gain status through academic success. Anti-school subculture- placed in lower streams, have inferior status. -Hargreaves: There are two distinctive subcultures: Conformists and Non-conformists delinquents (a delinquent subculture that helped guarantee their educational failure). -Woods: argues that rather than seeing pupil subcultures as either conformist or deviant, it is more realistic to see a variety of possible adaptations/responses to the schooling process. Pro-school: Ingratiation (pupils who try to earn the favour of teachers), Opportunism (those who vary between teacher and peer approval), Compliance (pupils who conform for instrumental reasons), Ritualism (pupils who go through the motions), Colonisation (pupils who avoid trouble, but will deviate if there is less punishment). Anti-school: Ritualism, Retreatism (not opposed to school values, but not concerned about achieving success), Colonisation, Intransigence (deviate and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t bothered about the consequences), Rebellion (pupils have little regard to school values and reject school teachings). -Ball: found that when the school abolished banding, the basis for pupils to polarise into subcultures was largely removed and the influence of the anti-school subculture declined. However, differentiation continued. As a result, class inequalities can continue due to teachers labelling. -Limitations: Deterministic: assumes that once pupils are labelled, they have no choice but to fulfil the prophecy and will inevitably fail. Ignores wider structures of power: blames teachers for labelling pupils but fails to explain why. 2d) Marketisation and Selection Policies -Marketisation is a policy that introduces market forces of supply and demand into areas run by the state. Marketisation has brought in; Funding formula (giving a school the same amount of funds for each pupil), Exam League Tables (ranking schools based on their exam performance), Competition among schools to attract pupils. -A-C Economy: Schools need to achieve a good league table position to attract pupils and funding. However, this widens the class gap in achievement. The A-C economy is a system in which schools ration their time, money, effort and resources to those who will get 5 A*-C GCSEs to get a high rank. -Educational Triage: sorting pupils; Ã¢â¬Ëthose who will pass anywayÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëthose with potentialÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëhopeless casesÃ¢â¬â¢. Those classed as hopeless cases are ignored (self-fulfilling prophecy and failure). -Competition and Selection: Schools with a good league table position will be placed to attract other able/MC pupils. Thus improves the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s results and makes it more popular which increases funding. Popular schools can afford to screen out less able and more difficult pupils, unpopular schools are obliged to take the, get worse results, and get less funding. Cream skimming: selecting higher ability pupils, who gain the best results and cost less to teach. Silt-shifting: off-loading pupils with learning difficulties, who are expensive to teach and get poor results. -Attraction: creating school contracts to attract parents, buying things like pipe organs to get a Ã¢â¬ËtraditionalÃ¢â¬â¢ image of the school (attracting the MC), grant maintained and city technology colleges provide vocational education in partnership with employers (another route to elite education). Ball et al suggests that schools spend more on marketing themselves to parents, and spend less in special needs in other areas. -Marketisation and selection created a polarised education system, with successful, well-resourced schools at one extreme, and failing un-resourced schools at the other; blurred hierarchy. External Factors (ethnic differences) 3a) Cultural Deprivation -Intellectual and linguistic skills: Major cause of under-achievement. Many children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences. This leaves them poorly equipped for school because they have not been able to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills. Also the language used by black children in inadequate for educational success. Also those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak English at home may be held back educationally. However, Mirza and Gillborn note that Indian pupils do very well despite not having English as their home language. -Attitudes and Values: Lack of motivation is a major cause of the failure of black children. Many children are socialised in a mainstream culture of ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make scarifies to achieve long-term goals. Black children are socialised into a fatalistic subculture. -Family structure: Failure to socialise children adequately is the result of dysfunctional family structure. Many black families are headed by a lone-mother; their children are deprived of adequate care because she has to struggle financially due to the absence of the male breadwinner. The absence of the father also leads to the absence of the positive role model. Charles Murray: would lead to the under-achievement of some minorities. Pryce: Asian pupils are higher achievers because their culture is more resistant to racism and gives them a greater sense of self-worth. Black culture is less cohesive and less resistant to racism. Thus they have low self-esteem and under-achieve. -Asian families: Driver and Ballard: they bring educational benefits as the parents have more positive attitudes towards education, higher aspirations and are therefore more supportive. Lupton: respectful behaviour towards adults was expected from children, and had a knock-on effect in schools. Khan: parents are Ã¢â¬Ëstress riddenÃ¢â¬â¢, bound by tradition, and controlling. -Criticisms: Driver: ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement. Lawrence: black pupils under-achieve because of racism not self-esteem. Keddie: victim-blaming theory. They under-achieve because schools are ethnocentric and favour white culture. Compensatory Education: it is an attempt to impose on the dominant white culture on children who have a culture of their own. Critics propose 2 alternatives: Multicultural education: recognises values of minority cultures and includes them in the curriculum. Anti-racist education: challenges the prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider so ciety. 3b) Material Deprivation -Stats: 1) Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are more likely to be in low-paid jobs. 2) 15% of ethnic minority households live in overcrowded conditions. 3) Unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people. -Gillborn and Mirza argue that social class factors donÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore the influence of ethnicity. When we compare pupils of the same social class but different ethnic origins, we still find differences in achievement. 3c) Racism in Wider Society -David Mason: Ã¢â¬ËDiscrimination is a continuing and persistent feature of the experience of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s of ethnic minority originÃ¢â¬â¢. -Rex: shows how racial discrimination leads to social exclusion and how this worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities. E.g. housing; minorities are more likely to be forced into substandard accommodation than whites. -Noon: two people with the same qualifications and experience applied for a job. However, the white person got the job, rather than the Indian. Thus shows that ethnic minorities are more likely to face unemployment and low pay. Internal Factors (ethnic differences) 4a) Labelling and Teacher Racism -Interactionists: They see that teachers picture an image of the Ã¢â¬Ëideal pupilÃ¢â¬â¢. But they see that black and Asian far from the ideal pupil. This leads them to label black pupils as disruptive and aggressive, and Asian pupils as passive and a problem they can ignore. -Gillborn and Youdell: due to racialised expectations, teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour. -Black pupils: Teachers misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening/challenge to authority. Pupils then responded negatively and further conflict resulted. This may be why many black pupils are excluded, and their stereotypes may cause them to be in lower sets (under-achievement). -Asian pupils: Teachers assumed that they would have a poor grasp of English and left them out of class discussions or used simplistic childish language. They also felt isolated when teachers mispronounced their names or teachers expressed disapproval of their customs. 4b) Pupil Responses and Subcultures -Fuller: Study of a group of black girls in year 11. Found that the girls conformed as far as school work was concerned. They worked consistently, but gave the appearance of not doing so (positive attitude to academic success, but preferred to rely on their own efforts than teachers). Fuller sees that pupils may still succeed even when they refuse to conform, and negatively labelling doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always lead to failure (no self-fulfilling prophecy). -Mirza: Study of ambitious girls who faced teacher racism. The study failed as their coping strategies restricted their opportunities and thus under-achieved. She found that racist teachers discouraged black pupils from being ambitious through the kind of career advice that was given to them. The colour blind: teachers who believe all pupils are equal but allow racism got unchallenged. Liberal chauvinists: teachers who believe black pupils are culturally deprived and had low expectations of them. Overt racists: teachers who believe blacks are inferior and discriminate against them. -Sewell: Four ways in which boys respond to racist stereotyping: Rebels (rejected both the goals and rules of school, conforming to the stereotype of the Ã¢â¬Ëblack macho ladÃ¢â¬â¢. Saw white boys as effeminate), Conformists (keen to succeed, accepted the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and avoided stereotypes from teachers or their peers), Retreatists (disconnected from both school and black subcultures), Innovators (pro-education but anti-school). 4c) The Ethnocentric Curriculum -Ethnocentric: attitude/policy that gives more value to one culture and ignores the rest. -The curriculum is very ethnocentric (favouring white culture). E.g. in teaching languages; non-European languages are ignored (also other cultures in literature, art and music). However, in history, black history is taught, but it is focused on slavery. This may produce lower self-esteem to black pupils as this image of black people as inferior undermines them and may lead to failure. 4d) Institutional Racism -Institutional racism: discrimination that is built into the way institutions operate. -Schools tend to set schemes for the gifted and talented, and vocational schemes for the less academic e.g. black and Asians. External Factors (gender differences) 5a) Girls -Feminism: McRobbie shows that magazines in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s emphasised the importance of getting married. Whereas, nowadays, they contain images of assertive, independent women. Also soap operas now highlight the importance of self-esteem and personal choice for young women. -Family: Sine the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s there have been major changes in the family. For example: an increase in divorce rates, increase in cohabitation and a decrease in the number of first marriages, increase in the number of lone-parent families (female-headed) and smaller families. These changes affect girlÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes to education. Such as: the increase in female lone-parent families may mean more women need to take on the breadwinner role. This creates a new adult role model for girls- the financially independent. To achieve this, women need well-paid jobs, and thus good qualifications. Also the increase in divorce rates suggests that girls can make their own living. -Employment: 1970 Equal Pay Act (illegal to pay women less for the same job as men), Sex Discrimination Act. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment has risen due to the service sector and flexible part-time work. 1975- The pay gap between men and women has increased. Women are now breaking through the Ã¢â¬Ëglass ceilingÃ¢â¬â¢ (keeps them out of high-level professional managerial jobs). -Ambitions: Sharpe- study involved conducting interviews with girls in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. In the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the girls felt that education with unfeminine and if they were interested, it would make them unattractive. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions had changed, and thought careers are more important as they can support themselves. 5b) Boys -Feminisation of education: Schools do not nurture Ã¢â¬ËmasculineÃ¢â¬â¢ traits such as competitiveness and leadership. Also coursework has created differences in educational achievement. -Shortage of male primary school teachers: Strong positive male role models both at home and at school cause may cause under-achievement. 16% of men are primary school teachers. 42% said they made them work harder. Yet, Myhill and Jones found they felt male teachers treated boys harshly. -Ã¢â¬ËLaddishÃ¢â¬â¢ subculture: WC boys are more likely to be labelled as sissies and subjected to homophobic verbal abuse if they appeared to be Ã¢â¬ËswotsÃ¢â¬â¢. Boys were more concerned to be labelled by peers than girls, as it is a threat to their masculinity. Thus, WC boys rejected schoolwork to avoid being called Ã¢â¬ËgayÃ¢â¬â¢. Epstein- Ã¢â¬Ëreal boys donÃ¢â¬â¢t workÃ¢â¬â¢ if they do, they get bullied. Internal Factors (gender differences) 6a) Girls and Achievement -Equal opportunities policies: Policies such as GIST and WISE encourage girls to pursue a career in non-traditional areas. The National Curriculum has removed one source of gender inequality by making girls and boys study mostly the same subjects. Also schooling has become meritocentric. -Positive role models: The increase in female teachers shows that women can achieve positions of importance and giving them non-traditional goals to aim for. -GCSE and coursework: Girls are more successful in coursework as they are more conscientious and better organised. Sociologists argue that these characteristics and skills are the result of early gender socialisation. E.g. girls are likely to be encouraged to be neat, tidy and patient. This puts girls in a better place as they achieve greater success. Elwood- not the only cause of the gender gap. -Teacher attention: Teachers paid more attention to boys as they are attracted to reprimands. This may explain why teachers have more positive attitudes to girls, whom they see as cooperative, than to boys, whom are seen as disruptive. This may lead to self-fulfilling prophecy in which successful interactions with teachers promote girls self-esteem and raise the achievement levels. -Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum: Sexist images have been removed from learning materials. This may help raise girlÃ¢â¬â¢s success levels- more positive images of what women can do. -Selection and league tables: Girls are more likely to be recruited from good schools as they are more attractive to schools. This may create a self-fulfilling prophecy. -Feminists: Liberal- See that further progress will be made by the continuing developments of equal opportunities, and see education is a meritocracy. Radical- System still remains patriarchal. E.g. sexual harassment continues, education still limits their subject choice and career options, females are less likely to become head-teachers.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
In the course of years of stock market study, two quite distinct schools of thought have arisen, two radically different methods of arriving at the answers to the traderÃ¢â¬â¢s problem of what and when. In the street jargon, one of these is commonly referred to as the fundamental analysis or statistical, and the other as the technical. The term technical in its application to the stock market has come to have a special meaning. It refers to the study of the action of the market itself as opposed to the study of goods in which the market deals. Technical analysis is the science of recording, usually in graphic form, the actual history of trading (price changes, volumes, and transactions, etc) in a certain stock or in Ã¢â¬Å"the averagesÃ¢â¬ and then deducing from that pictured history the probable future trend. According to Park and Irwin (2007) recent studies indicate that technical trading strategies consistently produce economic profits in a range of speculative markets at lea st until the early 1990s. From a total of 95 recent studies, 56 studies find positive results regarding technical trading strategies, 20 studies obtained negative results, and 19 studies indicate mixed results. In pioneering work, Smidt (1965b) studies amateur traders in US commodity futures markets and finds that more than half of the respondents use charts exclusively or moderately in order to identify trends. Charts are working tools of the technical analyst, and they have been developed in a multitude of forms and styles to represent graphically almost anything that takes place in the market as well as to plot Ã¢â¬Å"indexÃ¢â¬ derived thereform. From a more recent study, Billingsley and Chance (1996) found that about 60% of commodity trading advisors (CTAs) rely heavily or e... ...market quotation already contains in itself all that can be known about the future and in that sense has discounted future contingencies as much as is humanly possible.Ã¢â¬ There are also negative empirical findings in numerous pioneer and widely cited studies of technical analysis in the stock market, such as Fama and Blume (1966), Jensen and Benington (1970), and Van Horne and Parker (1967, 1968). Sullivan et al (1999, 2003) and Olson (2004) are among recent studies that have shown that technical trading rules do generate positive economic profits before the 1990s, but the profits are declining markedly or are disappearing altogether as time passes and globalization occurs. Such results may be explained by temporary market inefficiencies in periods before the 1990s. According to Park and Irwin, 2007, there are two possible explanations for the temporary inefficiencies Essay -- In the course of years of stock market study, two quite distinct schools of thought have arisen, two radically different methods of arriving at the answers to the traderÃ¢â¬â¢s problem of what and when. In the street jargon, one of these is commonly referred to as the fundamental analysis or statistical, and the other as the technical. The term technical in its application to the stock market has come to have a special meaning. It refers to the study of the action of the market itself as opposed to the study of goods in which the market deals. Technical analysis is the science of recording, usually in graphic form, the actual history of trading (price changes, volumes, and transactions, etc) in a certain stock or in Ã¢â¬Å"the averagesÃ¢â¬ and then deducing from that pictured history the probable future trend. According to Park and Irwin (2007) recent studies indicate that technical trading strategies consistently produce economic profits in a range of speculative markets at lea st until the early 1990s. From a total of 95 recent studies, 56 studies find positive results regarding technical trading strategies, 20 studies obtained negative results, and 19 studies indicate mixed results. In pioneering work, Smidt (1965b) studies amateur traders in US commodity futures markets and finds that more than half of the respondents use charts exclusively or moderately in order to identify trends. Charts are working tools of the technical analyst, and they have been developed in a multitude of forms and styles to represent graphically almost anything that takes place in the market as well as to plot Ã¢â¬Å"indexÃ¢â¬ derived thereform. From a more recent study, Billingsley and Chance (1996) found that about 60% of commodity trading advisors (CTAs) rely heavily or e... ...market quotation already contains in itself all that can be known about the future and in that sense has discounted future contingencies as much as is humanly possible.Ã¢â¬ There are also negative empirical findings in numerous pioneer and widely cited studies of technical analysis in the stock market, such as Fama and Blume (1966), Jensen and Benington (1970), and Van Horne and Parker (1967, 1968). Sullivan et al (1999, 2003) and Olson (2004) are among recent studies that have shown that technical trading rules do generate positive economic profits before the 1990s, but the profits are declining markedly or are disappearing altogether as time passes and globalization occurs. Such results may be explained by temporary market inefficiencies in periods before the 1990s. According to Park and Irwin, 2007, there are two possible explanations for the temporary inefficiencies
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Generational Poverty creates a strong family oriented environment that is a bond that most children refuse to want to break by leaving home. Most of the children that are raised in poverty have a lack of education resulting in a high dropout rate due to frustration in learning or teen pregnancy. Children become possessions to their parents instead of someone that they should teach and prepare for them to move out on their own to achieve success for their families. The older children tend to take care of the younger children forming a sense of belonging to the family resulting in the children to be afraid of leaving home ever. Single parents tend to work longer hours resulting in the inability to educate their children resulting with lower test scores in school causing educational boundaries that could cause illiteracy with children wanting to drop out because of anger and depression with the inability to learn and keep up with the other children. There is a lack of cultural experiences to other environments due to lack of money or transportation to and from areas of culture. This can present language issues where children only know certain words and the specifics of communicating what their needs are expressed unsuccessfully due to being uneducated. (Entertainment, 2006) As the children grow into being teens their lack of education could cause a severe resistance to wanting success or achieve greater paying jobs. This could lead to illegal activities such as the making and selling of drugs to earn money to support their children or to a life of crime and theft. The men that frequent the homes are either lovers or fighter and they come and go in and out of the lives of the woman and children, mostly because they may be wanted by law enforcement. This could lead to the children having a lack of food to sustain proper nutrition based on the large families and low income that the parents bring home. (Entertainment, 2006) Planning for the future is crucial in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life; this provides more stability for families so that they feel secure for their futures. However, in generational poverty there is an inability to plan or save money for the future due to a lack of income. So planning is nearly impossible because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where they might be from day to day. Without having any bank accounts or having a mind set to handle money, they use every penny that comes into the household for survival, entertainment or relationships only; there is no security for the future so living in the present is all that populations of generational poverty can do. With an assumption of unemployment most of the members of generational poverty turn to house cleaning, doing peoples hair or nails and even babysitting for extra income to supplement some money that is needed. They have no concept for long term careers and hold a variety of jobs creates a common thought of no future security for not only th e adults but this mentality also passes onto the children who are victims of generational poverty. (Entertainment, 2006) Most of the long term jobs that generational poverty members have are dwindling as there is not a need for so many workers in the agricultural fields. Coal mines are closing down; there is despair in the towns where work was once abundant now the merchants are closing causing citizens to move away from the area. Now there are a lot of drugs, theft and generalized crime. The economy is shifting from manufacturing to a service economy and many of those in generational poverty canÃ¢â¬â¢t go along with that shift based of lack of educational experience to help them achieve higher pay, so in the end the manufacturing workers are relying on state assistance for food, money and medical. This becomes mentally instilled into the minds of the children that are being raised with little or no money that it is okay to be on state assistance and live that way for many years resulting in misuse of the system. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s Oscar Lewis introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty CultureÃ¢â¬ as they learn from each other resulting in forming a Ã¢â¬Å"new normalÃ¢â¬ that includes the undesired to work and have no education, with this shift we could see a lot of generational poverty groups shifting from TANF to SSI. (Entertainment, 2006) Members of generational poverty are considered to be under classed where they canÃ¢â¬â¢t or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t and are non-participating in work search help agencies. These people are in great demand for food, beds, clothes and school supplies where they are unprepared to participate in the main stream day to day due to illiteracy. With the under developed skills there are more school drop outs, more teen pregnancies and higher unemployment rates. Poverty stricken individuals are likely to abuse every governmental assistance program and get away with abusing the system as each system is not connected with one another. (Entertainment, 2006) As rare as it is some do break the cycle of poverty to poverty proving that the myths involved with not being able to escape poverty and the cultural shock of success is possible. It may take 10-15 years more to fully understand generational poverty. We know that most of those who are classed in poverty just settle for where they are because of not being educated and a lack of desire to succeed fearing that they will not be accepted back into their families if they make it out of the poverty level. With their mind set being that they are illiterate they feel that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t get jobs so therefore they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even try to better themselves. This effects educators in teaching children because of lack of social cognitive skills to successfully communicate their needs and to be about to read and write on the same level of children their own age, the value on a good education is not transferred to generational poverty children. Educators at school want to help children to excel academically, but when a value is not placed on learning it makes it difficult for teachers to have a strong desire to want to help those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t help themselves to succeed, resulting in poorer quality of education at home, with peers and in the environment where roles are played. Parents are not taking the time that is needed to teach their children, most of the children are considered Ã¢â¬Å"latch keyÃ¢â¬ kids or in daycare after school until they can get off work presenting a lack of supervision for the children to take their studies seriously leading to a higher dropout rate among generational poverty children. Schools are beginning to implement more structure to help those who desire to overcome generational poverty however change cannot occur over night and the first thing that needs to change is the attitude of the child before escape from generational poverty can be made. Without motivation or the will to improve their situation then the cycle cannot be broken, therefore a good solid education is the first thing that needs to be accomplished so that the cycle can be broken and children of generational poverty can succeed in breaking the cycle. (Diller, 2011) (Entertainment, 2006) AGED FACING ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT The challenges that the aged face when there is a lack of access to employment begin with governmental forces that are pushing the aged out at 67 to receive SSI and Medicare. Companies are laying off the higher paid older employees to open up positions for younger lower paid employees who may have higher educational experience to navigate the changing from a manufacturing work environment to the service environment in which some of the aged face as problems due to a lack of educational experience. This leaves the aged with no health care and forced to take demeaning demanding jobs that they cannot successfully work because of their age and that they do not have the energy or abilities to overcome unemployment. This situation results in the need for them to spend their savings long before they intended to use it or that they have no savings because they have helped their children and supported them through the years. (Phoenix, 2013) UNIQUE CHALLENGES WOMEN FACE Women are faced with more life changing decisions then men, such as having a child is for life rather than having the option to bail when life gets to tough. Facing society looking down upon her when she chooses a career over staying at home and raising her child is scrutinized even though the woman knows that she loves and cares for her children, the way society looks upon her may stress her out. If a young woman marries a wealthy man she can devote her time and energy to raising her children without having to work. However if a woman chooses love over money then working to provide for her family is what she has to do despite what society thinks about her providing instead of staying at home and raising her children. Facing any stage in life is difficult if the woman is not equipped with a way to handle or deal with the daily stress of an ever changing life with their husband, children, career and just life in general. (unknown) (Coleman, 2012) PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE AND THE WAY I WILL APPROACH THE SPECIAL POPULATIONS Personally I did not realize the impact that generational poverty has on the communities where they are residing in. I knew that there were those who were poor, however, the generational poverty community is much worse off than I could have ever imagined. Being a mother, I could never imagine not teaching my child right from wrong or even the basic math equations that would help her to succeed in school. Life is full of many different lifestyles and cultures but pure ignorance in the education of young children is one that should not be tolerated by anyone. Educators who try to help the children of generational poverty are doing their best to help the children want to have the desire to succeed but the parents or older children at home have made it clear that leaving would devastate their parents, so the only that young children feel that they can do is drop out of school so that they can lead the same life as their siblings before them. As for the unemployment that the aged face because companies are deciding to force retirement, this is wrong and creates societal problems of the need to take care of the elderly or for them to seek out caring individuals to manipulate to care for them because of the lack of family support. Advocates within the community should be helping the elderly to find resources that are being abused by generational poverty victims and help the elderly get of governmental assistance. The changes that women face day to day are many that I face as I approach 40 years of age. My daughter is getting taller, stronger, and older and is not a baby any more, resulting in a desire to have more children. However as women get older their ability to have children has either been surgically removed or they feel that the risks are too high for them to have children. These types of stressors can result in depression, lack of sex drive and just an overall feeling of despair. Learning about these different aspects of life has been rewarding and changed the way that I think how I will approach those who are dealing with so many different cultures. I will more sensitive to those who are older, less fortunate and just going through some changes that they are facing in day to day life. Works Cited Coleman, K. (2012, October 24). Equal Pay For Equal Work: Not Even College Helps Women. Retrieved from NPR: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/10/24/163536890/equal-pay-for-equal-work-not-even-college-helps-women Diller, J. V. (2011). Cultural Diversity. A Primer for the Human Services. In J. V. Diller, Cultural Diversity. A Primer for the Human Services. Cengage Learning. Entertainment, L. I. (Director). (2006). Born with a Wooden Spoon: Welcome to Poverty U.S.A. (Characteristics of Generational Poverty)(Breaking the Cycle of Generational Poverty) [Motion Picture]. Phoenix, U. o. (2013). Understanding the Depth of Challenges
Monday, January 6, 2020
The progressive tenses in Spanish are formed by using a conjugated form of estar, a verb usually translated as to be, followed by a present participle, the form of the verb that ends in -ando or -iendo. In English, the progressive verbs are formed by using a form of to be followed by the present participle or -ing verb form. Although the progressive verb form (also called the continuous verb form) is used much less in Spanish than it is in English, the various tenses of the Spanish progressive verb forms are the rough equivalent of the same forms in English. Present Progressive In the present progressive tense, for example, Estoy estudiando is roughly the equivalent of I am studying. Note, however, that you also could say I am studying as Estudio. In Spanish, the progressive forms put additional emphasis on the continuing nature of the action, although the distinction isnt readily translatable. Although the present progressive can be used in English for future events (as in The train is leaving soon), that cant be done in Spanish. Te estoy mirando.(I am looking at you.)Finalmente estamos comprendiendo la importancia de la comunicaciÃ ³n.(Finally we are understanding the importance of communication.)En este momento estamos mejorando nuestro sitio web para poder servirles mejor.(At this moment we are improving our website in order to serve you better.) Imperfect Progressive This tense is the more common past progressive tense. It places emphasis on the continuing nature of the action, although again in many contexts there would be little translatable difference between, for example, Yo estaba hablando con mi madre and Yo hablaba con mi madre, both of which can be understood to mean I was talking with my mother. Un conejito estaba corriendo por la jungla cuando ve a una jirafa.(A bunny was running through the jungle when he saw a giraffe.)Ã ¿En quÃ © estaban pensando?(What were they thinking of?)No se estaban oyendo el uno al otro.(They werent listening to each other.) Preterite Progressive This tense is used less often than the imperfect progressive to refer to past actions. It is not used to explain the background of an event (as in the first example in the preceding section). Use of this form suggests there was a clear end to the activity. Hoy estuve oyendo la mÃ ºsica de Santana.(Today I was listening to the music of Santana.)La actriz estuvo comprando ropa para su hija.(The actress was buying clothes for her daughter.)Seis equipos estuvieron jugando desde las 12 pm hasta las 9 pm para decidir quien serÃ a el campeÃ ³n.(Six teams were playing from noon until 9 p.m. to decide who would be the champion.) Future Progressive This tense can be used to refer to events that will be happening. And, as with the simple future tense, it can be used to say that something is likely in the present. En sÃ ³lo cuatro horas estarÃ © viajando a Palenque.(In only four hours I will be traveling to Palenque.)Tarde o temprano estaremos sufriendo.(Sooner or later we will be suffering.)EstarÃ ¡n estudiando ahora.(Theyre probably studying now.)EstarÃ ¡ gastando mucho dinero en CancÃ ºn.(She must be spending a lot of money in Cancun.) Conditional Progressive This tense is commonly used as the equivalent of verb constructions such as would be doing. Si hubiera nacido en Estados Unidos estarÃ a comiendo una hamburguesa.(If I had been born in the United States I would be eating a hamburger.)Si fuera tÃ º no estarÃ a trabajando tanto.(If I were you, I wouldnt be working so much.)Nunca pensÃ © que estarÃ a diciendo ahora estas cosas.(I never thought I would be saying these things.)Obviamente estamos interesados; si no, no estarÃ amos conversando.(Obviously, were interested; if not, we wouldnt be talking.) Perfect Progressive The present participle or gerund also can follow a conjugated form of haber followed byÃ estadoÃ to form perfect progressive tenses, much as can be done in English with have or had and been. Such tenses carry the ideas of both continuous action and completion. These tenses arent particularly common. Dijeron los padres que el niÃ ±o habÃ a estado gozando de completa salud hasta el 8 de noviembre.(The parents said that the boy had been enjoying excellent health until Nov. 8.)Los estudiantes habrÃ ¡n estado utilizando los ordenadores.(The students will have been using the computers.)HabrÃ an estado comprando el pan en calle Serrano a la hora de la explosiÃ ³n.(They would have been buying bread on Serrano Street at the time of the explosion.) Progressive Tenses in the Subjunctive Mood If the sentence of the structure requires it, you can also use the progressive forms in the subjunctive mood. No creo que estemos viviendo hoy en una democracia.(I dont believe we today are living in a democracy.)Es posible que estÃ © pensando en comprar una casa.(It is possible that she is thinking about buying a house.)Es casi como si estuvieran nadando.(It is almost as if they were swimming.)No es posible que haya estado durmiendo.(It is not possible that I have been sleeping.)